Document root directory

The HTML content and PHP applications for your website are typically located in the public_html directory within the home directory of the virtual server. For instance, the website content for would be in /home/example/public_html.

Sub-servers have their content within a sub-directory under their parent virtual server home. For example, would be in /home/example/domains/

CGI scripts

CGI scripts are located in the cgi-bin directory within the virtual server home directory. For instance, CGI applications for would be in /home/example/cgi-bin.

Directory listings differences

When managing files on a Virtualmin server, it’s important to understand how directory listings can vary depending on the service used to access the server:

  • SSH service

    • SSH allows navigation through the entire filesystem, subject to user permissions.
  • FTP service

    • The root directory shown in FTP/FTP with SFTP clients is often the user’s home directory, not the root of the entire filesystem.
    • FTP/FTP with SFTP access might be restricted to specific directories, depending on the server configuration and user permissions.

Uploading files

There are multiple methods to upload content to your Virtualmin account:

SSH, SCP, and SFTP (FTP over SSH)

Virtualmin provides flexible options for secure file transfers:

  • Standard SSH: Typically available on port 22 for secure shell access, SCP, and SFTP.
  • FTP with SFTP: Configured to use port 2222, offering SFTP capabilities.
Windows SCP clients
  • pscp: A command-line SCP client related to PuTTY, a popular SSH client, can be downloaded from Putty’s official website.
    • Usage example:
      C:\> pscp.exe myfile.htm
Windows, macOS, and Linux Graphical FTP Clients
  • FileZilla: A versatile and free graphical FTP client that supports SFTP, FileZilla is available for Windows, macOS, and Linux. It can be downloaded from the Filezilla Project website.

    • To configure FileZilla, follow these steps:
      1. Download and install FileZilla.
      2. Open FileZilla and navigate to File ⇾ Site Manager.
      3. Click New Site and give it a name like example.
      4. For Protocol, choose SFTP - SSH File Transfer Protocol.
      5. In the Host box, enter
      6. Set Logon Type to Normal and fill in the User and Password fields with your Virtualmin account details.
      7. You can now connect and transfer files to and from your Virtualmin server.
  • WinSCP (Windows Only): Another reliable option for FTP over SSH is WinSCP, available for Windows. Visit the WinSCP Home Page for more information and to download the client.

    • After installation, enter your server, username, and password details to connect and manage files in your Virtualmin account.
macOS and Linux SCP Clients
  • scp: Both macOS and Linux include the scp command, part of the OpenSSH suite. Use it to securely transfer files to and from your Virtualmin server.

    • Example usage:
      $ scp myfile.htm
  • gftp (Linux only): A popular Gnome-based graphical FTP client that also supports SCP and SFTP. Available in most Linux distributions’ repositories or on the gftp GitHub page.

FTP and FTPS (FTP over TLS)

Virtualmin also supports FTP and FTPS:

  • FTP: The traditional unencrypted file transfer protocol, typically on port 21.
  • FTP over TLS: Offers encrypted FTP (FTPS) over the same port 21, enhancing security for file transfers.

Webmin File Manager

For file management within the user interface, refer to the detailed documentation in the Webmin File Manager documentation.